OBJECTIVE: TO CONTROL FAT ACCUMULATION
Fat control is ensured by three mechanisms:
- Adipogenesis – synthesis of adipose tissue
- Lipogenesis – absorption and storage of fats
- Lipolysis – fat excretion
These three mechanisms occur at the level of adipocytes but have very different regulatory mechanisms.
Adipogenesis is triggered by the UPR
During a meal, the pancreas will generate a peak of insulin. This naturally synthesized hormone is responsible for the synthesis of proteins which role is the absorption of glucose and fatty acids from the blood. It will also largely regulate adipogenesis
When insulin binds its receptor at the surface of adipocytes, it triggers the synthesis of two proteins:
- The lipoproteine lipase (LPL)
- The type 4 glucose transporter (GLUT4)
LPL will cleave circulating fats in the blood as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into fatty acids and glucose.
The fatty acids will penetrate the adipocytes by simple diffusion. Glucose will use GLUT4 as a transport channel, then it will be metabolized to glycerol to finally combine with fatty acids and thus form triglycerides, the form of fat storage in adipocytes.
To be functional, the LPL and GLUT4 proteins need to be properly folded. This stage of maturation takes place in the adipocyte’s endoplasmic reticulum, and it is ensured by a chaperone protein: the GRP78 which exists in limited quantity. During an excessive diet, a large amount of protein is produced and GRP78 may be overwhelmed. In this case the adipocyte triggers the UPR: the unfolded protein response which in turn triggers adipogenesis, i.e. the neosynthesis of adipose tissue.
An excessive diet will thus lead to an overproduction of insulin which will increase the amount of adipose tissue (greater number of functional adipocytes) and its ability to store fat.
- Controling the fat volume
- Reducing the quantity of adipose tissue
To meet these expectations, Exsymol has developed active ingredients that reduce adipogenesis. This reduces the amount of adipose tissue, but also to prevent the yoyo effect that causes a rapid regain of weight following a diet.
Step 1: Decreasing adipogenesis for regulating the amount of stored fat
Supporting GRP78 for preventing adipogenesis
By supporting the folding activity of the GRP78, activation of the UPR and therefore the adipogenesis activation is avoided.
Inhibiting the activity of insulin for reducing adipogenesis
By inhibiting the activity of insulin, the ability of preadipocytes to differentiate into functional adipocytes is also reduced.
Step 2: Decreasing adipogenesis for preventing the yoyo effect
The yoyo effect : a defense system of the body
In case of deprivation, or rapid weight loss (diet …), the body will put in place a defense mechanism to deal with a putative new episode of stress: it will largely promote fat reabsorption (lipogenesis) as well as the creation of adipose tissue (adipogenesis). This explains the rapid recovery of weight just after even the slightest misconduct after a diet: that is the yoyo effect.
By reducing the amount of fat tissue created, we will reduce the impact of the yoyo effect.