OBJECTIVE: TO CONTROL FAT ACCUMULATION
Fat control is ensured by three mechanisms:
- Adipogenesis – synthesis of adipose tissue
- Lipogenesis – fat absorption and storage
- Lipolysis – fat excretion
These three mechanisms occur in adipocytes but have very different regulatory mechanisms.
Lipogenesis is conditioned by diet
During a meal, the pancreas will generate a peak of insulin. This naturally synthesized hormone is responsible for absorbing glucose from the blood stream. It is also the main regulator for lipogenesis.
When insulin binds its receptor at the surface of adipocytes, it triggers the synthesis of two proteins:
- The lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
- The type 4 glucose transporter (GLUT4)
LPL will cleave circulating fats in the blood as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into fatty acids and glucose.
The fatty acids will penetrate the adipocytes by simple diffusion. Glucose will use GLUT4 as a transport channel, then it will be metabolized to glycerol to finally combine with fatty acids and thus form triglycerides, the form of fat storage in adipocytes.
Thus, the richer the diet, the stronger the peak of insulin and more fat absorption will occur.
- Control of the body weight
Reduce the amount of fat absorbed after a meal
To meet these expectations, Exsymol has developed actives capable of reducing lipogenesis. This helps to reduce fat absorption, but also to prevent the yoyo effect that causes a rapid regain of weight after a diet.
Step 1: Decreasing lipogenesis for regulating fat reabsorption
Decreasing the effectiveness of insulin for reducing lipogenesis
By inhibiting the activity of insulin in the adipocytes, the amount of stored fat is reduced.
Inhibiting the LPL activity for reducing lipogenesis
By inhibiting LPL activity, the cleavage of lipoproteins in the blood, and thus the storage of fat in adipocytes, is avoided.
Step 2: Decreasing lipogenesis for preventing the yoyo effect
The yoyo effect: a defense system for the body
In case of deprivation, or rapid weight loss (diet …), the body will put in place a defense mechanism to deal with a putative new episode of stress: it will largely promote fat reabsorption (lipogenesis) as well as the creation of adipose tissue (adipogenesis). This explains the rapid recovery of weight just after even the slightest misconduct after a diet: that is the yoyo effect.
By reducing the amount of fat reabsorbed, we will reduce the impact of the yoyo effect.